reported speech - direct speech - reported question

direct speech

The English language ends a sentence in the direct speech with a comma , no colon. The quotation marks are superscript.

John,“ I hate maths.“

Tense shift

If the reporting verb is in the past, you will have to pay attention to the following rules:

simple present ➔ simple past
You, “I know the way”. ➔ You said (that) you knew the way.

will ➔ would
You,”I will do it”. ➔ You said (that) you would do it.
present perfect ➔ past perfect
You,”I have done it”. ➔ You said (that) you had done it.

can ➔ could
You, “I can do it”. ➔ You said (that) you could do it.
present progressive ➔ past progressive

present progressive ➔ past progressive

You,”I am doing it”. ➔ You said (that) you were doing it.

would, could, might bleiben unverändert
You, “I would/could/might do it”. ➔ You said (that) you would/could/might do it.

reported question

If the reporting verb is in the past, you will have to pay attention to the following rules:

simple present ➔ simple past
“Do you know the way?” ➔ Johnny asked if (wether) you knew the way.

will ➔ would
”Will you do it?” ➔ Johnny asked if (wether) you would do it.

present perfect ➔ past perfect
”Have you done it?” ➔ Johnny asked if (wether) you had done it.

can ➔ could
“Can you do it?”.➔ Johnny asked if (wether) you could do it.

present progressive ➔ past progressive
”Are you doing it?” ➔ Johnny asked if (wether) you were doing it.

would, could, might bleiben unverändert
“Would/could/might you do it?” ➔Johnny asked if (wether) you would/could/might do it.

There is no kein comma
before the introductory conjunction if or whether

There is no do/does/ did at the beginnig of the question:
“Do you know Ellen?” ➔ I asked you if you knew Ellen.

!Beware of the word order and the position of the question word.

“When is your birthday?” ➔ I asked you when your birthday was.

time indicators

Just as the tenses, also the time indicators are changing in the reported speech:

direct speechreported speech
this eveningthat evening
today / this daythat day
now then
these daysthose days
a week agoa week before
last weekendthe previous weekend
next weekthe following week
tomorrowthe next day
herethere

reported speech - reported question